Google scholar – Xing Wu Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:39:37 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Google scholar – Xing Wu 32 32 Is it really the oldest tree in the world? Skeptics and proponents weigh in » Explorersweb Tue, 07 Jun 2022 00:39:37 +0000

A tree called Alerce Milenario, located in Alerce Costero National Park in Chile, may be the oldest living organism in the world. Research by Jonathan Barichivich, a Chilean environmental scientist working in Paris, estimates that the conifer is over 5,000 years old.

Barichivich drills into

Barichivich holds a master’s degree in climate change and a doctorate. in Environmental Science from the world renowned Climate Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia, UK. He is also a winner of the Make Our Planet Great Again (MOPGA) program, created by the French government to find creative solutions to climate change.

Some of the dendrochronologist’s work is available through Google Scholar.

For this particular test, it used a special drill to test the age of the Alerce Milenario. The drill removes narrow wood elements without damaging the tree.

His method showed about 2,400 growth rings. Barichivich and his team deduced that the tree had an 80% chance of being around 5,484 years old.

What type of tree is it?

Belonging to the same botanical family as giant sequoias and redwoods, Alerces Milenario is a type of conifer. That puts it in the same rough category as Methuselah, the eastern California bristlecone pine widely considered the oldest tree in the world, with 4,853 growth rings.

In 1993, Antonio Lara from the Austral University of Chile found an old strain of alerce in southern Chile with 3,622 tree rings, similar to Alerce Milenario.

Who supports Barichivich’s claim?

Several scholars are intrigued by Barichvich’s findings.

Harald Bugmann, a fellow dendrochronologist at ETH Zürich, said the method used to determine the age of the tree was “a very clever approach”.

Others are more reserved.

“The prospect is certainly exciting,” said Nathan Stephenson, scientist emeritus at the US Geological Survey. “[But] as a scientist, you want the peer-reviewed publication, with all the dirty, dirty details.

This lack of detail made others doubt it.

Are there any skeptics?

Barichivich’s informal results do not include a full count of growth rings, which some consider essential for accurately aging any tree.

Ed Cook, founding director of the Tree Ring Laboratory at Columbia University, expressed his opinion forcefully.

“The ONLY way to truly determine the age of a tree is to count the rings dendrochronologically. This requires ALL rings to be present or accounted for,” he concluded.

Barichivich is not afraid of skepticism. “Alerce is the second longest living species, so you would expect to see old trees,” he said. “My method is verified by studying [the full growth rings of] other trees.

Ramzi Touchan, of the University of Arizona’s Tree Ring Research Laboratory, said making assumptions about tree rings without counting them leaves room for error. As a young tree, it may have had less competition and grown faster than later years, he argued, so inferences about a tree’s inner rings may be inaccurate.

Still, Barichivitch said, “The alert is where it should be on the exponential growth curve. It grows slower than bristlecone pine, the oldest known tree, indicating it should live longer.

Barichivitch will soon publish a full report on his findings.

Dr. Irma McClauin South African Conference: Resistance and Radical Re-imagination | New Sat, 04 Jun 2022 04:19:00 +0000

Bonke Sonjani (he/him)

Bonke Sonjani is currently pursuing a Masters in Heritage Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand. He is also a trainee archivist at the GALA Queer Archives where he is interested in homosexual student protests in South Africa.

Dr Irma McClaurin recently presented a guest lecture with the Center for Diversity Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand in which she spoke about her renowned black feminist archive established for the preservation and dissemination of history and heritage black women. The Black Feminist Archive is one of a kind – it is the first archive in the world that acts as a catalyst for the collection, protection and dissemination of the voices of Black African/American women who have been inherently excluded from official histories. Dr. McClaurin originally developed the archive as a record of her own life and her experiences at the various institutions for which she worked. By acknowledging the power relations embedded in the cis-gender and male-dominated field of study – anthropology in which she earned a doctorate at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, McClaurin acts as a vector of both resistance and radical re-imagining. Black feminist archives provide a training ground for black archivists to counter the heteropatriarchal profession of archivist.

McClaurin says she believes everyone is an archive filled with rich family, professional and social history. According to her, “Our stories are a necessary (and sometimes secret) ingredient in a recipe for impactful social change in America” (McClaurin 2021). As such, she encouraged all conference attendees to begin documenting their emails, letters, notes and lived experiences, saying these serve as an archive of thoughts, methodologies and events. McClaurin’s take on the Black Feminist Archive is inspiring. She does not approach the project from the “institutionalized” practice of archiving which has a discursive history of eradicating queer, black and female bodies from accepted narratives of history. Additionally, through what I would call a “bottom-up” methodology, McClaurin helps Black women celebrate and preserve their experiences and stories that reflect “lifetimes” of activism, resistance, creativity, and production. intellectual. Through such methodologies, their life and their various contributions (artistic, social, political, scientific, etc.) are recognized as having played a major role in the development of a more complete American History (McClaurin 2021).

McClaurin’s artistic practices, both as an activist bio-cultural anthropologist and as an archivist, inspire me as a young scholar. As a former recipient of the Andrew W Mellon Prize from the History Department of the Humanities Research Center at the University of the Western Cape, and as an aspiring curator, archivist and heritage practitioner, McClaurin’s work has provided a model for my artistic practices. As a former history scholar at a historically black university that does not have an art school, McClaurin inspired my positioning within my artistic research interests.

What sets McClaurin apart from other scholars and artists is his aura – during the conference, one couldn’t help but feel so empowered and inspired to start the projects they had been putting off. It was the same case for me too, I had a hard time situating myself in my research interests. I consulted with my lecturers and various other people who could inform my curatorial practices on “how” to organize and initiate the projects I designed. The meaning of McClaurin’s assertion about black feminist archives has therefore inspired me beyond these various engagements I have had with other scholars and artists. I have learned that following institutionalized canons of “how to” only reiterates the gendered and heteropatriarchal terrains of artistic practices. And so countering these canons as McClaurin did would provide what Alberta Whittle calls “a conservation conservation strategy” in which she argues that “biting the hand that feeds you” (referring to official institutions) is necessary. to the destruction and harmful patterns of contemporary arts (Whittle 2019).

This notion of “bite the hand, the hand feeds you” as posed by Whittle involves engaging with communities and ordinary citizens in order to infiltrate and counter cis-gender white spaces in contemporary arts. McClaurin has used this strategy of curating black feminist archives in practice by preserving material from black women like Miss Archie Henderson Jones, who turns 97 this year. According to McClaurin, Miss Archie is an anthropologist whose work remains unpublished in academic journals and websites such as Google Scholar, Academia and JSTOR due to her provocative approach to anthropology that viewed black people as unworthy of research. By engaging with her material, the Black Feminist Archive aims to highlight her material on black people while giving it agency and recognition at the same time. As a feminist scholar interested in reclaiming the ostracized narratives of queer people from student protests such as the Fees Must Fall and Rhodes Must Fall movements, I was inspired by the Black Feminist Archive to “bite the hand” by demonstrating agency for the queer student. community by writing an arts-based research project that illustrates the contribution of queer people to movements.

Reference list

Whittle, A. 2019. Biting the Hand That Feeds You: A Temperamental Conservation Strategy, Critical Arts, 33; 6, 110-123

McClaurin, I. 2021. Black Women: Seen and Heard. Foundation of the Black Feminist Archives at UMass. The University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Letter to the editor: Evidence and lack of evidence for… : Emergency Medicine News Wed, 01 Jun 2022 20:18:23 +0000

Letter to the Editor

Evidence and lack of evidence for ketamine

doi: 10.1097/01.EEM.0000834188.88309.76


My first reaction was that Blake Briggs, MD was going too far to defend one of his residents. (“Why are we still talking about ICP and ketamine?” REM. 2022;44[3]:27;

That there is a lack of evidence that ketamine causes worse outcomes in TBI says little. The lack of evidence does not mean that there is evidence to the contrary, especially because the TBI includes not only hemorrhage, but also ischemic stroke in the catch-all term. Without strong, direct evidence comparing the outcomes of hemorrhage in ketamine versus other induction agents, few conclusions about safety can be drawn.

Despite the fact that there is an expected systemic hypertensive response that patients typically have with ketamine flares, I was surprised to learn of the literature supporting the mechanism of cerebral dilation. Also, there is no article in PubMed or Google Scholar that I could find supporting that ketamine worsens intracranial hemorrhage.

Christopher Lee Taicher, MD

Culver City, California

Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

]]> Roadmap for a literature review Mon, 30 May 2022 20:04:52 +0000

By Prof. RA Seetha Bandara, Board Member of the Sri Lanka Economic Association (SLEA)

This article is based on a presentation made on April 28 at the “Roadmap for Literature Review” webinar that coincided with the launch of the Sri Lanka Economic Association (SLEA) e-repository. The speaker was Dr. Namali Suraweera, Senior Professor, Department of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Kelaniya. The webinar speaker was the Senior Professor of Department of Economics and Statistics, University of Peradeniya, Anoma Abhayaratne. The event was moderated by SLEA Vice President, Dr. Malraj B. Kiriella.

The opinions expressed in the article are those of the presenters and do not reflect the views of SLEA.

Roadmap for a literature review

A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides insight into a particular topic and brings out dialects of contradictions between various thoughts; indicate the current place of research in the scheme of a particular field; identify research gaps. There are four stages of a literature review such as the formulation of a research problem, the search for relevant literature, the evaluation and appraisal of the literature, and the analysis and synthesis of sources.

The presenter pointed out that there are nine steps to follow as a roadmap for a literature review.

Develop search terms: Keywords are very important in literature search. Here you have to find your keywords (main concepts), develop the keywords using synonyms and related words and develop the concepts and mix and match the keywords in the library databases.

Search using terms, Boolean operators and filters: iterative process: you can easily and quickly find current publications using electronic platforms such as Google Scholar, search networks/websites and also use e-books, e-journals, e-databases and e-repositories. . In addition to Boolean operators (and, or, not), there are search tools, search options, sort options, wildcards.

Identify initial primary sources on the topic: you can use peer-reviewed empirical journal articles, academic journal articles, and literature review articles. Be sure to avoid predatory publishers and journals. However, you must update the literature from the beginning to the end of your search.

Read summaries: You can read the summary first and, if relevant, you can browse the entire article. Highly cited articles are very important for the literature review.

Summarize in paragraph.

Create a thematic table of summarized information: you can organize your documentation well using this table.

Prepare for the first draft of organizational approaches and writing strategies: Here you need to identify an organizational approach and writing strategies. There are two main organizational structures, descriptive organization and chronological organization. Apart from these, you can follow common structures such as chronological, thematic, methodological and theoretical.

Write the first draft and edit, correct and polish.

The presenter pointed out that a literature review is a critical overview of the main published literature on the topic. She pointed out that the word “critical appraisal” is very important when it comes to reviewing the literature. Literature review helps the researcher generate and refine their research idea and is also part of research that demonstrates your awareness of the current state of knowledge on the subject, its limitations, and how your research falls within this broad context. One of the main purposes of the literature review is to highlight gaps in the literature. And also, the author should explain how your work fills those gaps and fills them.

The presenter pointed out that there is no single structure for critical literature review. However, she suggested that it’s helpful to think of the review as a funnel where you start at a more general level before narrowing it down to your specific research questions. While providing a brief overview of key ideas and themes, the researcher should summarize, compare and contrast the research of key authors in the relevant field and provide new insights. Another important point of the literature review is plagiarism.

Both resource persons emphasized that reviewing the literature is a very important part of research. A researcher should collect the most relevant and most cited, most recent literature and critically appraise it to find gaps in the literature.

]]> Take your research to the next level Mon, 23 May 2022 15:38:34 +0000

Body of the review

The Auburn University Libraries Savvy Researcher Boot Camp is a one-day event, featuring workshops led by faculty and staff from Auburn University Libraries, Academic Writing, Academic Support, and QMER. Whether you want to locate scholarly sources, write a literature review, manage citations or data, or publish your work, Savvy Researcher workshops will help you become a better and more effective researcher. Pick and choose the workshops that interest you.

A special lunchtime presentation will feature a panel of Auburn faculty members, who will share tips and strategies for success in graduate school.

When: Saturday, June 4, 2022, from 9 a.m. to 3:45 p.m.Where: Ralph Brown Draughon, or RBD, Library himself.Register here.

The workshops include:

Literature review writing, offered by University Writing.NEW: Introduction to APA writingFind sources for your literature reviewGoogle Scholar tips and tricksNEW: Google TranslateNEW: Market demographics and consumer behaviorNEW: Artstor Image LibraryIntroduction to Systematic ReviewsIntroduction to Zotero | Mendeley ClinicPublish your workResearcher & Student Success, offered by Academic Coaching.NEW: Guided Tour of Digital Scholarship ToolsNEW: Get started with NVivoData management for scientific workflowsNEW: Project management with Git/GitHubNEW: Census data location on race and ethnicityIntroduction to LaTeX | LaTeX: Bibliographies, Images, Tables

Estimation of childhood cancer incidence, prevalence, mortality and registration (0-14 years) in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region: an analysis of GLOBOCAN 2020 data Fri, 20 May 2022 22:43:26 +0000


There is little evidence on the burden of childhood cancer in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Our aim was to provide an estimate of the burden of childhood cancer in the EMR, to examine the relationship between age-standardized mortality rate and income level (gross domestic product [GDP] per capita) and reflect on the current state of recording childhood cancer in the EMR.


Using GLOBOCAN 2020 data from the Cancer Surveillance Unit of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, we extracted data on the incidence, prevalence and mortality of cancer in children (aged 0 to 14 years) for 22 countries in the EMR, the EMR as a whole, and other WHO regions, and classified by major types of cancer. Childhood cancers have been classified according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases. We also searched MEDLINE, Google Scholar and gray literature between May 17 and August 2, 2021 for articles and reports in English on the status of childhood cancer registration in the EMR . We then examined the relationship between age-standardized mortality rate and GDP per capita for the 22 RMS countries.


The estimated total number of incident childhood cancer cases in the EMR was 23,847 in 2020, with an age-standardized incidence rate of 10 1 per 100,000 children at risk, ranging from 7 3 per 100 000 children at risk in Pakistan to 13·8 per 100,000 children at risk in Iran. The estimated number of incident cases was 7451 (age-standardized incidence rate 3 10 per 100,000 children at risk) for leukemia, 3006 (1 30 per 100,000 children at risk) for brain tumors and CNS, 2,222 (0 92 per 100,000 children at risk) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1,569 (0.67 per 100,000 children at risk) for kidney cancers and 1,420 (0.58 per 100,000 children at risk) for Hodgkin lymphoma. In 2020, the estimated total number of childhood cancer deaths in the EMR was 10,535, with an age-standardized mortality rate of 4.4 (per 100,000 children at risk, ranging from 0.8 per 100 000 children at risk in Qatar to 7.2 per 100,000 children at risk in Somalia A negative correlation was found between GDP per capita (income level) and mortality rates (r=–0 77, p<0 0001). The paucity of data and the quality of cancer registries in EMR countries prevented further analysis.


Given the variable quality and coverage of cancer registries in EMR countries, these results are likely to be underestimated. Nevertheless, these data, particularly the high mortality rates, reflect the need for effective national childhood cancer control plans, in line with the WHO Global Initiative for Childhood Cancer, in order to improve survival.


Friends of cancer patients.

International Symposium on Advances in Blockchain (ISBA) 2022, the cosmic ray of the future of blockchain shines on Singapore Thu, 19 May 2022 09:10:12 +0000

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Singapore, Singapore–(Newsfile Corp. – May 19, 2022) – The International Symposium on Blockchain Advancements (ISBA) will debut in Singapore, from 1st at 2n/a December 2022. Organized exclusively by ParallelChain Lab, ISBA brings together significant voices of ecosystem builders and users, representing different players in the innovation chain, but united by the aspiration to make digital transformation fueled by the blockchain.

Like the first in the series, the theme for ISBA 2022: ‘A New Dimension of Interoperability – DeFi and CeFi Coupling‘ targets the heart of digital infrastructure, blockchain platforms. He will hear from distinguished technologists, industry leaders and venture capitalists on the networked enterprise and distributed economies, from a cutting-edge technology and business perspective.

An unprecedented solid program at the head of the symposium – Fri. 2 Dec. 2022.

The ISBA will be inaugurated by the Grand Guest of Honor – the Honorable Dick Cheney, former Vice President of the United States on December 2, 2022, accompanied by an impressive line-up of speakers:

  • Dr. Radia Perlman: The “Mother of the Internet”; 2016 National Inventors Hall of Fame; National Academy of Engineering 2015; Internet Hall of Fame 2014.
  • Charlie Kaufman: Dell EMC System Security Architect; former Chief Network Security Architect of Microsoft Azure; former Chief Network Security Architect of IBM Lotus Notes; Member of the Expert Panel of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States.
  • Dr. Raj Jain: Barbara J. and Jerome R. Cox, Jr., professor of computer science and engineering at the University of Washington; a highly cited computer science scholar with over 37,000 citations on Google Scholar.
  • Nitin Gaur: Founder and director of IBM Worldwide Digital Asset Labs; Founder and former director of IBM Blockchain Labs.
  • money: A highly regarded and prolific NFT curator and thought leader.
  • More to reveal.

The symposium is divided into three tracks: “Technology”, “Enterprise” and “Decentralized Finance (DeFi)”. Each track consists of keynote speeches on topics related to the real world adoption of blockchain technology, followed by panel discussions with live Q&As.

Pre-symposium tutorials – Thursday, December 1, 2022.

The day before the symposium, tutorial sessions will take place on the university campus. We will learn from renowned technologists including Dr. Radia Perlman the “Mother of the Internet”, expert in cybersecurity Charlie Kaufman and cryptography researcher Dr Elaine Shion the difficult but critical topics related to the advancement of blockchain technology, such as quantum computing and transaction fee mechanisms.

Access-encoded live streaming available for global audiences.

The benefits of attending ISBA 2022 cannot be missed – it provides inspiration for the future of blockchain developing from “what” to “how”. It allows participants to have a realistic view of emerging trends and needs and to have a technical blueprint for an innovative solution.

Interested in participating? Registration for ISBA 2022 is now open at While physical participation is exclusive for guestsvirtual participation is open to all, subject to duly completed registration.

For the most up-to-date event information, please visit

For media and partnership inquiries, please write to [email protected].


About the International Symposium on Advances in Blockchain (ISBA)

ISBA is a global blockchain initiative organized and sponsored by ParallelChain Lab. It aims to guide the first step in migrating to the digital economy by provoking meaningful questions and discussions that will enable all of us, builders and consumers, to cut through the tech hype and grasp a realistic view of trends and emerging needs, and provide a technical blueprint for innovative solutions.


E-mail: [email protected]

About ParallelChain Lab

Founded in 2018, ParallelChain Lab develops solutions for the Web 3.0 economy with breakthrough blockchain and AI technologies. ParallelChain is a breadth of two layer-1 blockchain platforms, powering an ever-growing ecosystem of enterprise and decentralized applications with advanced scalability and functionality, data privacy, and immutable accountability.


Contact: [email protected]



Telegram announcement channel:

MarketAcross PR
[email protected]

To view the source version of this press release, please visit

Accuracy of a surface-based fusion method when integrating digital models and cone-beam CT scans with metal artifacts Mon, 16 May 2022 09:54:07 +0000

This retrospective study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University (B-1911/576-105) and the Institutional Review Board of Columbia University -British (H19-03765). A total of 20 class III skeletal adult patients (7 males and 13 females; age, 21.7 ± 4.0 years) were included, who were treated with single or double jaw orthognathic surgery at Bundang Hospital in Seoul National University from March 2016 to October 2019. All patients were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: (1) ANB < 0°; (2) had a full set of pre-surgical records, including digital casts and CBCT scans, to fabricate the surgical splint; (3) had fixed edge devices in place when the recordings were taken. Exclusion criteria were: (1) CBCT scans did not include the entire craniofacial area; (2) received treatment with transparent aligners.

Image fusion procedure and measurement

All patients underwent CBCT (KODAK 9500, Carestream Health Inc., Rochester, NY, USA), which was obtained with a field of view of 200 mm × 180 mm, a voxel size of 0.2 mm, and exposure conditions of 80 kVp, 15 mA and 10.8 s. During CBCT scans, patients were asked to maintain an upright position. Their heads were positioned in which Frankfurt’s horizontal planes were parallel to the ground and stabilized by the ear rods. They were asked to keep their teeth in maximum intercuspation. All CBCT scans were saved as DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) data files. DICOM data was converted to stereolithography format, oriented and reconstructed using Geomagic software (Geomagic Qualify 2013®, 3D Systems, Morrisville, NC, USA) following reference plans. The horizontal plane (axial plane; X-plane) is the plane passing through the nasion, which is parallel to the Frankfurt horizontal plane (FH) passing through the left and right orbitals and the right part. The midsagittal plane (Y plane) is the plane passing through the nasion and the basion, while being perpendicular to the X plane. The coronal plane (Z plane) is perpendicular to the horizontal and midsagittal planes, defining the plane passing through the nasion (zero point; 0, 0 and 0) (Fig. 2).

In addition, simultaneously with CBCT acquisition for each patient, a conventional impression was taken with alginate (Aroma fine plus normal set, GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to fabricate maxillary and mandibular dental casts. To produce digital models, surface images of the maxillary and mandibular casts and their maximum intercuspation were digitized in standard tessellation language (STL) format using a desktop model scanner (MD-ID0300, Medit Co, Seoul, Korea).

The digital molded images of the entire maxillary dentition were merged with the dental parts of the reconstructed CBCT images using Geomagic software. First, a point-based registration was performed using the cusp tips of the canines and the mesiobuccal cusps of the maxillary first molars in both images. Then, for more accurate integration, surface-based registration was performed (Fig. 3). The tips of the cusps or the occluso-buccal surfaces of the teeth above the bracket and the lingual surfaces of the teeth as the registration area were used with the best fit algorithm26.28. This procedure was performed twice two weeks apart by 2 examiners (a digital engineer and an orthodontist [J.-H.K.]).

picture 3

Workflow for studying the integration of digital maxillary models in CBCT scans. (a) Reconstructed CBCT image, (b) digital cast image, (vs) process of integrating maxillary digital molded images into dental parts of reconstructed CBCT images, (D) built-in skeletal models.

The 3D coordinate values ​​(x, y and z) of the cusps of the canines, the mesiobuccal cusps of the first molars and the contact points between the maxillary central incisors were measured in the coordinate system, which is constructed by X – , Y- and Z-plane through the nasion (zero point; 0, 0 and 0). The differences in the x, y or z coordinates of each tooth between two repeated fusions, measured by the 2 examiners, were evaluated13. In addition, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated to determine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the measurements of the 3D positions of the maxillary dentition after fusion by a digital engineer and an orthodontist, and between the 2 examiners.

statistical analyzes

Power analysis with correlation ρ H1 = 0.77, α = 0.05 and power (1 − β) = 0.80 showed a sample size requirement of 10 (G*Power v. Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany)29.

All statistical data were analyzed with SPSS software (Version 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). Paired t-tests, Wilcoxon signed rank tests, ICC tests, and Bland-Altman analyzes were performed to assess differences and reproducibility between 3D positions (3D coordinates) of the maxillary dentition taken twice by each of the two examiners. Intra-rater reliability and inter-rater reliability were assessed using ICC as follows: ICC > 0.8/0.6/0.4/0.2 or ≤ 0.2 represents near perfect, substantial, moderate, poor or weak agreement, respectively.30. In addition, the significance level was set at P<0.05.

Ethics approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board and in accordance with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and subsequent amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

For this type of non-interventional retrospective clinical study, the Institutional Review Board of Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University and the Institutional Review Board of the University of British Columbia waived informed consent. .

A new non-human primate model of desiccating stress-induced dry eye Fri, 13 May 2022 15:10:18 +0000


Twelve female rhesus macaques (Mr Mulatta) aged 4–5 years were used in these experiments. Monkeys had free access to drinking water and were fed monkey food (12% calories from fat, 18% calories from protein, and 70% calories from carbohydrates; 200-300 g/day ). In addition, a daily ration of additional fruits, vegetables or supplements and various toys were also provided. All experimental protocols (AW2038) have been reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Sichuan Primed Shines Bio-tech Co., Ltd. No animals were sacrificed for the purpose of this work. This study adhered to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and the guidelines of the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Association for Research of Vision and Ophthalmology.

Induction of dry eye

Monkeys were housed in an environmentally controlled room with relative humidity (RH) less than 15%, airflow of 12 L/min, and temperature of 21°C to 26°C, for 36 consecutive days. Dry eye was assessed clinically using corneal fluorescein staining on days 0, 14, 21, and 36 after dry eye induction.

Treatment plan

Twenty-one days after dry eye induction, monkeys in the controlled environment room were randomly divided into two treatment groups (n = 6 monkeys/12 eyes in each group): (1) one group receiving topical normal saline as placebo, (2) topical Pred Forte 1% group (Allergan, Inc., USA). Two drops of normal saline and 1% Pred Forte were applied topically to both eyes of unanesthetized monkeys three times daily for 14 days (total, 42 doses). Dry eye was assessed clinically using fluorescein staining on treatment days 0, 7, and 14 (treatment day 0 equals post-induction day 21).

Corneal fluorescein staining (CFS)

Corneal fluorescein staining was performed on days 0 (baseline), 14, 21 and 36 after dry eye induction and on days 0, 7 and 14 of the treatment regimen. Ten microliters of 10% fluorescein liquid (Alcon Laboratories Inc., USA) was applied to the inferior-lateral conjunctival sac of the monkey, and after 10 minutes, corneal fluorescein staining was examined under the cobalt blue light using a slit lamp biomicroscope (TOKA TSL-5, Wenzhou Raymond Photoelectricity Tech. Co., Ltd., China). Punctate staining was assessed in a masked manner using the National Eye Institute scoring system, giving a score of 0-3 for each of five areas of the cornea17.

Tear Film Breakup Time (TFBUT)

Tear film break-up time was measured according to the guidelines set out in the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) 2017 report11. Ten microliters of 2% fluorescein preservative-free solution were applied to the conjunctival sac with a micropipette. The monkeys were tricked into blinking their eyes three times by an ophthalmologist to ensure adequate mixing of the dye. The time interval between the last complete blink and the appearance of the first corneal black spot, indicating tear film breakdown, was measured using a stopwatch. The intensity of the background illumination was kept constant (cobalt blue light) and an integrated yellow filter was used to improve the visibility of the tear film over the entire cornea. The TFBUT was measured three times per eye and the mean value of the measurements was calculated.

Schirmer test

The Schirmer I test after local anesthetic application was performed on days 0 (baseline) and 21 after dry eye induction to measure baseline tear secretion in monkeys, as previously described.4. Briefly, a 35 mm Schirmer test strip (Eickemeyer, Tuttlingen, Germany) was inserted into the inferior conjunctival fornix at the junction of the middle and lateral third of the lower lid margin. The eyelids were gently closed and the extent of wetting was measured after 1 and 5 min, respectively.

Collection of tears

Monkeys were laid on a table in the supine position after being anesthetized with an intramuscular injection of 10 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride (Jiangsu Zhongmu Beikang Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., China). Thirty microliters of phosphate-buffered saline solution was instilled into the lower fornix, and the monkeys were manually made to blink eight times. A total of 25 μL of tear lavage was collected with a micropipette from the lateral canthus. To minimize irritation to the ocular surface, we collected the tear wash immediately after application. The tear wash was placed in a 1.5 ml Eppendorf tube and stored at -80°C until further examination.

Measurement of IL-17, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ

LEGENDplex™ bead-based immunoassays (BioLegend, USA) were used to measure IL-17, IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ levels in tears according to manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, 25 μL of the solution consisting of the tear, standard, mixed beads, and buffer solutions were added to each tube. Then the tube was centrifuged at 800 rpm and incubated for 2 h at room temperature. After three washes to remove unbound proteins, 25 μL of corresponding detection antibodies were added to each tube. The tube was then centrifuged at 800 rpm and incubated for another hour at room temperature. After three washes to remove unbound detection antibodies, samples were read on a flow cytometer (Beckman CytoFLEX, USA) and then analyzed using LEGENDplex™ V8.0 software (BioLegend, USA).

statistical analyzes

Groups were compared by paired or unpaired two-sample t-tests. All values ​​are expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. All statistical analyzes were performed using Prism 9 software.

Two faculty members named Emeritus Professors Fri, 06 May 2022 18:30:11 +0000

Kenneth J. Sufka (left), professor of psychology and pharmacology, and Robert Van Ness, Bruce Moore Chair in Finance, have been named the university’s Distinguished Professors.

OXFORD, Mississippi — Two respected University of Mississippi professors with a combined 50 years of teaching, research and service have been named professors emeritus by the university.

Kenneth J. Sufka, professor of psychology and pharmacology, and Robert Van Ness, holder of the Bruce Moore professorship in finance, received the honorary title Friday, May 6, during the spring meeting of professors.

Created in 2018, the title of Professor Emeritus recognizes top faculty members with sustained excellence at the university. The award was created in response to the university’s strategic initiative to develop post-professional recognition.

“The Professor Emeritus Award recognizes individuals for sustained careers of achievement that have had a significant influence on their disciplines,” Provost Noel Wilkin said. “This year’s two winners, Dr. Sufka and Dr. Van Ness, are no exception.

“They both had productive careers that helped transform their research fields and enhanced their students’ educational experiences.”

Ken Sufka interacts with students in a Psychology 201 class. Photo by Nathan Latil/Ole Miss Digital Imaging Services

A leading international researcher in behavioral neuroscience and psychopharmacology, Sufka joined the UM faculty in 1992. He has ongoing collaborative projects with Mahmoud ElSohly, professor of pharmacy and drug administration at UM and director of the university’s Marijuana Project; Kevin Freeman, associate professor of psychiatry at UM Medical Center; Stephen White, a former Ole Miss doctoral student working at Sam Houston State University; and Johnny Roughan, at Newcastle University.

“During his career, he has produced an impressive body of work in the field of behavioral neuroscience and psychopharmacology, which has led to incredible breakthroughs in the treatment of depression, chronic pain and addiction”, wrote ElSohly in support of Sufka’s nomination. . “Most notably, his research led to the discovery of the first and still only drug-effectiveness screening procedure for treatment-resistant depression, for which he was granted a patent in 2015.”

In collaboration with ElSohly and others, Sufka received a second patent in 2020 for a new cannabidiol analog that shows analgesic activity on par with opioids but without the side effect profile or abuse liability typical of this class of analgesics. This compound, which has the potential to solve the current crisis of opioid abuse, is licensed to a biotechnology company and is moving towards clinical trials.

Sufka’s work is transforming research to help fight chronic pain, ElSohly said.

“Dr. Sufka’s lab developed an innovative method to quantify the effects of analgesic drugs in animal models of chronic pain that is now routinely used in leading pain laboratories in the United States and abroad,” said he declared.

Sufka was often ahead of his time, said Jeffrey Mogill, EP Taylor professor of pain studies at McGill University in Montreal, citing a 1994 study in which Sufka found that conditioned place preference could be used as an indirect measure of chronic pain to assess potential analgesics.

Ken Sufka is one of the university’s most popular professors, as evidenced by the photos of him dotting the audience as he delivered the final lecture of 2017, the final lecture of the academic year. Photo by Thomas Graning/Ole Miss Digital Imaging Services

“This idea was so ahead of its time that the article only garnered 17 citations in the first decade after publication,” Mogill noted.

“In the past five years alone, Sufka, 1994 has been cited 40 times,” he continued. “I should point out that at present, CPP is the most commonly used technique in the pain field to measure spontaneous (or ongoing) chronic pain, and it is now widely accepted that this symptom of pain is the #1 priority for preclinical pain research.

“More and more people in the field are using a technique that Ken single-handedly invented in 1994.”

Widely hailed as a talented, dedicated and effective teacher who is passionate about student success, Sufka is the first UM professor to be named Case-Carnegie American Professor of the Year. His other awards include the 2006 Thomas F. Frist Student Service Award, the 2005 Outstanding Faculty Award, and the 1996 Elsie M. Hood Outstanding Teacher Award.

He has turned his passion for student success into a widely used book for undergraduates, “The A Game,” now in its second edition and translated into Spanish and Arabic. With over 250,000 copies in print, his book has been adopted by a number of colleges and universities for distribution to their freshman classes.

Van Ness came to UM in 2002 after serving on the faculty at Marshall University and Kansas State University.

Promoted to the rank of professor in 2009, he has held the Moore Professorship since 2013. He co-edited, with Bonnie Van Ness, The Financial Review from 2009 to 2015. Widely recognized as one of the most eminent scholars in his field, His main area of ​​research examines financial markets and securities trading, commonly referred to as market microstructure research.

Business professors Robert (left) and Bonnie Van Ness edited The Financial Review from 2009 to 2015. Photo by Robert Jordan/Ole Miss Digital Imaging Services

“His work has always been excellent, and I have no doubt that his future work will continue to meet the very high standards he has set for himself,” wrote Michael Pagano, professor of finance at the Villanova School of Business. “As his CV attests, Dr. Van Ness is an excellent teacher as well as an academic, having received numerous awards for both teaching and research.

“He has also given back to the profession as a successful editor of The Financial Review as well as associate editor of the Journal of Banking and Finance and other respected financial journals.

“Indeed, Dr. Van Ness’s reputation has been critical in putting the University of Mississippi on the map in the area of ​​finance and the subfield of market microstructure: when we in the profession think about the University of Mississippi, we think of Dr. Van Ness.

Van Ness’ expertise was also cited by other colleagues in support of his nomination.

“Within financial markets, market microstructure is how different trading mechanisms affect price formation and discovery and how transaction costs affect investor behavior,” wrote Daniel Bradley, Professor Lykes in finance and sustainability at the University of South Florida.

“Recently, the GameStop trade event in January 2021 underscored the importance of this area of ​​research, as payment for order flow was heavily debated across all mainstream media and ultimately led to congressional hearings (the debate is still ongoing).

“When I think of the microstructure of the market, the first person I think of is Dr. Van Ness. He has been and continues to be at the forefront of this field.

One of the most prolific researchers and scholars in his field, Van Ness has published over 100 peer-reviewed articles, has nearly 4,000 Google Scholar citations, and received 10 best paper awards at professional academic conferences, which further indicates his position as a researcher.

Alice Clark (left), then Vice Chancellor for Research and Sponsored Programs, presents Robert Van Ness with the university’s 2014 Distinguished Research and Creative Achievement Award at the launch. Photo by Nathan Latil/Ole Miss Digital Imaging Services

Primarily teaching MBA and PhD courses, he was highly regarded by students and won five teaching awards in the MBA program. The Director of Doctoral Programs, Van Ness has mentored numerous doctoral students, chaired or co-chaired 18 theses, and published with more than a dozen PhDs. students since arriving at Ole Miss.

No more than two eligible professors may be named emeritus professors in any given year.

Each school and college has its guidelines for nominations, but the university requires nominated faculty to have at least six years of service at the highest faculty rank, as well as exemplary achievements in research and creative achievement, teaching and service. In addition, winners are expected to have achieved a significant degree of national or international recognition.

The first distinguished professors in 2018 were John Daigle, Donald Dyer and Ikhlas Khan. Other faculty members who have earned the title are Alan Gross, Charles Hussey, Karen Raber, Arunachalam Rajendran, Michael Repka, Ron Rychlak, and Jay Watson.